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Thursday, May 6, 2010

Shale gas in US

Found an article that shows most of the shales but once again it hasn't been updated to see that the whole State of Michigan, including the UP that I can tell, is covered by the Utica Shale. Oh great. More unsafe...

Here is the article or the link is:

Shale gas in the United States
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Shale gas in the United States is rapidly increasing as a source of natural gas. Led by new applications of hydraulic fracturing technology and horizontal drilling, development of new sources of shale gas has offset declines in production from conventional gas reservoirs, and has led to major increases in reserves of US natural gas. Largely due to shale gas discoveries, estimated reserves of natural gas in the United States in 2008 were 35% higher than in 2006.[1]

In 2007, shale gas fields included the #2 (Barnett/Newark East) and #13 (Antrim) sources of natural gas in the United States in terms of gas volumes produced.[2]

The economic success of shale gas in the United States since 2000 has led to rapid development of shale gas in Canada, and, more recently, has spurred interest in shale gas possibilities in Europe, Asia, and Australia.

* 1 Production and reserves
* 2 History
* 3 Shale gas by location
o 3.1 Antrim Shale, Michigan
o 3.2 Barnett Shale, Texas
o 3.3 Caney Shale, Oklahoma
o 3.4 Conesauga Shale, Alabama
o 3.5 Fayetteville Shale, Arkansas
o 3.6 Floyd Shale, Alabama
o 3.7 Gothic Shale, Colorado
o 3.8 Haynesville Shale, Louisiana
o 3.9 New Albany Shale, Illinois Basin
o 3.10 Pearsall Shale, Texas
o 3.11 Devonian shales, Appalachian Basin
+ 3.11.1 Chattanooga and Ohio Shales
+ 3.11.2 Marcellus Shale
o 3.12 Utica Shale, New York
o 3.13 Woodford Shale, Oklahoma
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 6 External links

[edit] Production and reserves

US Shale gas production was 2.02 trillion cubic feet (TCF) in 2008, a jump of 71% over the previous year.[3] Shale gas production made up 10% of total US production of dry gas.[4] Remaining proved US shale reserves at the end of 2008 were 31.8 TCF, an increase of 51% over 2007.[5]
"The development of shale gas is expected to significantly increase U.S. energy security and help reduce greenhouse gas pollution." -- White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 17 November 2009 [6]

The top shale-gas sources in 2008 were (in descending order) the Barnett Shale (1,427 billion cubic feet (BCF)), Fayettville Shale (279 BCF), and Antrim Shale (118 BCF).[7]

The availability of large shale gas reserves in the US has led some to propose natural gas-fired power plants as lower-carbon emission replacements for coal plants, and as backup power sources for wind energy.[8][9]
[edit] History

The first commercial gas well drillied in the US, in 1821 in Fredonia, New York, was a shale gas well producing from the Devonian Fredonia Shale. Soon many shale gas wells were drilled in the area, and the gas used for domestic use and for street lamps. After the Drake Oil Well in 1859, however, shale gas production was overshadowed by much larger volumes produced from conventional gas reservoirs.

In 1996, shale gas wells in the United States produced 0.3 TCF (trillion cubic feet), 1.6% of US gas production; by 2006, production had more than tripled to 1.1 TCF per year, 5.9% of US gas production. By 2005 there were 14,990 shale gas wells in the US.[10] A record 4,185 shale gas wells were completed in the US in 2007.[11]
[edit] Shale gas by location
[edit] Antrim Shale, Michigan

The Antrim Shale of Upper Devonian age produces along a belt across the northern part of the Michigan Basin.[12] Although the Antrim Shale has produced gas since the 1940s, the play was not active until the late 1980s. During the 1990s, the Antrim became the most actively drilled shale gas play in the US, with thousands of wells drilled. To date, the shale has produced more than 2.5 TCF from more than 9 thousand wells. Antrim Shale wells produced almost 140×10^9 cu ft (4.0×109 m3) in 2006. The shale appears to be most economic at depths of 1,000-2,000 feet. Wells are developed on 80-acre (320,000 m2) units. Horizontal drilling is not widely used. Unlike other shale gas plays such as the Barnett Shale, the natural gas from the Antrim appears to be biogenic gas generated by the action of bacteria on the organic-rich rock.[1]

In 2007, the Antrim gas field produced 136 billion cubic feet of gas, making it the 13th largest source of natural gas in the United States.[13]
[edit] Barnett Shale, Texas
Barnett Shale gas drilling rig near Alvarado, Texas (2008)

The Barnett Shale of the Fort Worth Basin is the most active shale gas play in the United States. The first Barnett Shale well was completed in 1981 in Wise County.[14] Drilling expanded greatly in the past several years due to higher natural gas prices and use of horizontal wells to increase production. In contrast to older shale gas plays, such as the Antrim Shale, the New Albany Shale, and the Ohio Shale, the Barnett Shale completions are much deeper (up to 8,000 feet). The thickness of the Barnett varies from 100 to 1,000 feet (300 m), but most economic wells are located where the shale is between 300 and 600 feet (180 m) thick. The success of the Barnett has spurred exploration of other deep shales.

In 2007, the Barnett shale (Newark East) gas field produced 1.11 trillion cubic feet of gas, making it the second-largest source of natural gas in the United States.[15] The Barnett shale currently produces more than 6% of US natural gas production.[16]

Texas Shale Forum
[edit] Caney Shale, Oklahoma

The Caney Shale in the Arkoma Basin is the stratigraphic equivalent of the Barnett Shale in the Ft. Worth Basin. The formation has become a gas producer since the large success of the Barnett play.

* Bill Grieser: Caney Shale, Oklahoma's shale challenge, PDF file, retieved 25 February 2009.

[edit] Conesauga Shale, Alabama

Wells are currently being drilled to produce gas from the Cambrian Conasauga shale in northern Alabama.[17] Activity is in St. Clair, Etowah, and Cullman counties.[18]
[edit] Fayetteville Shale, Arkansas

The Mississippian Fayetteville Shale produces gas in the Arkansas part of the Arkoma Basin. The productive section varies in thickness from 50 to 550 feet (170 m), and in depth from 1500 to 6,500 feet (2,000 m). The shale gas was originally produced through vertical wells, but operators are increasingly going to horizontal wells in the Fayetteville. Producers include SEECO a subsidiary of Southwestern Energy Co. who discovered the play, Chesapeake Energy, Noble Energy Corp., XTO Energy Inc., Contango Oil & Gas Co., Edge Petroleum Corp., Triangle Petroleum Corp., and Kerogen Resources Inc.[19]

* Geology.Com: Fayetteville shale
* Fayetteville shale: reducing environmental impacts

[edit] Floyd Shale, Alabama

The Floyd Shale of Mississippian age is a current gas exploration target in the Black Warrior Basin of northern Alabama and Mississippi.[20][21]
[edit] Gothic Shale, Colorado

Bill Barrett Corporation has drilled and completed several gas wells in the Gothic Shale. The wells are in Montezuma County, Colorado, in the southeast part of the Paradox basin. A horizontal well in the Gothic flowed 5,700 MCF per day.[22]
[edit] Haynesville Shale, Louisiana

Although the Jurassic Haynesville Shale of northwest Louisiana has produced gas since 1905, it has been the focus of modern shale gas activity only since a gas discovery drilled by Cubic Energy in November 2007. The Cubic Energy discovery was followed by a March 2008 announcement by Chesapeake Energy that it had completed a Haynesville Shale gas well.[23] Haynesville shale wells have also been drilled in northeast Texas, where it is also known as the Bossier Shale.

* Geology.Com: Haynesville Shale: news, map, videos, lease and royalty information
* Go Haynesville Shale, a forum for petroleum professionals and landowners to discuss the Haynesville shale.

[edit] New Albany Shale, Illinois Basin

The Devonian-Mississippian New Albany Shale produces gas in the southeast Illinois Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky. The New Albany has been a gas producer in this area for more than 100 years, but recent higher gas prices and improved well completion technology have increased drilling activity. Wells are 250 to 2,000 feet (610 m) deep.[2] The gas is described as having a mixed biogenic and thermogenic origin.
[edit] Pearsall Shale, Texas

Operators have completed approximately 50 wells in the Pearsall Shale in the Maverick Basin of south Texas. The most active company in the play has been TXCO Resources, although EnCana and Anadarko Petroleum have also acquired large land positions in the basin.[24] The gas wells had all been vertical until 2008, when TXCO drilled and completed a number of horizontal wells.[25]
[edit] Devonian shales, Appalachian Basin
Drilling a horizontal shale gas well in Appalachia
[edit] Chattanooga and Ohio Shales

The upper Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin, which are known by different names in different areas have produced gas since the early 20th century. The main producing area straddles the state lines of Virginia, West Virginia, and Kentucky, but extends through central Ohio and along Lake Erie into the panhandle of Pennsylvania. More than 20,000 wells produce gas from Devonian shales in the basin. The wells are commonly 3,000 to 5,000 feet (1,500 m) deep. The shale most commonly produced is the Chattanooga Shale, also called the Ohio Shale.[26] The US Geological Survey estimated a total resource of 12.2 trillion cubic feet (350 km3) of natural gas in Devonian black shales from Kentucky to New York[3]
[edit] Marcellus Shale

The Marcellus shale in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New York, once thought to be played out, is now estimated to hold 168-516 TCF still available with horizontal drilling.[27] It has been suggested that the Marcellus shale and other Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin, could supply the northeast U.S. with natural gas.[28] In November 2008, Chesapeake Energy, which held 1.8 million net acres of oil and gas leases in the Marcellus trend, sold a 32.5% interest in its leases to Statoil of Norway, for $3.375 billion.[29]

* Geology.Com: Marcellus shale
* Go Marcellus Shale A forum for the Marcellus Shale.

[edit] Utica Shale, New York

In October 2009, the Canadian company Gastem, which has been drilling gas wells into the Ordivician Utica Shale in Quebec, drilled the first of its three state-permitted Utica Shale wells in New York. The first well drilled was in Otsego County.[30]
[edit] Woodford Shale, Oklahoma

The Devonian Woodford Shale in Oklahoma is from 50 to 300 feet (91 m) thick. Although the first gas production was recorded in 1939, by late 2004, there were only 24 Woodford Shale gas wells. By early 2008, there were more than 750 Woodford gas wells.[31][4] Like many shale gas plays, the Woodford started with vertical wells, then became dominantly a play of horizontal wells. The play is mostly in the Arkoma Basin of southeast Oklahoma, but some drilling has extended the play west into the Anadarko Basin and south into the Ardmore Basin.[32] The largest gas producer from the Woodford is Newfield Exploration; other operators include Devon Energy, Chesapeake Energy, Cimarex Energy, Antero Resources, St. Mary Land and Exploration, XTO Energy, Pablo Energy, Petroquest Energy, Continental Resources, and Range Resources.

* Oklahoma Geological Survey: Map of Woodford shale wells, accessed 25 February 2009.
* Brian J. Cardott: Overview of Woodford gas-shale play in Oklahoma, 2008 update, PDF file, retrieved 25 February 2009.

[edit] See also

* Petroleum in the United States

[edit] References

1. ^ Jad Mouawad, "Estimate places natural gas reserves 35% higher,", New York Times, 17 June 2009, accessed 25 October 2009.
2. ^ US Energy Information Administration, Top 100 oil and gas fields, PDF file, retrieved 18 February 2009.
3. ^ US Energy information Administration, Shale gas production, accessed 4 December 2009.
4. ^ US Energy information Administration, Dry natural gas proved reserves, accessed 4 December 2009.
5. ^ US Energy information Administration, Shale gas proved reserves, accessed 4 December 2009.
6. ^ White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Statement on U.S.-China shale gas resource initiative, 17 November 2009.
7. ^ US Department of Energy, "Modern Shale gas development in the United States," April 2009, p.10.
8. ^ Peter Behr and Christa Marshall, "Is shale gas the climate bill's new bargaining chip?," New York Times, 5 August 2009.
9. ^ Tom Gjelten, "Rediscovering natural gas by hitting rock bottom," National Public Radio, 22 September 2009.
10. ^ Vello A. Kuuskraa, Reserves, production grew greatly during last decade Oil & Gas Journal, 3 Sept. 2007, p.35-39
11. ^ Louise S. Durham, "Prices, technology make shales hot," AAPG Explorer, July 2008, p.10.
12. ^ Michigan DEQ map: Antrim, PDF file, downloaded 12 February 2009.
13. ^ US Energy Information Administration, Top 100 oil and gas fields, PDF file, retrieved 18 February 2009.
14. ^ Scott R. Reeves and others, New basins invigorate U.S. gas shales play, Oil & Gas Journal, 22 Jan. 1996, p.53-58.
15. ^ US Energy Information Administration, Top 100 oil and gas fields, PDF file, retrieved 18 February 2009.
16. ^ US Energy Information Administration: Is U.S. natural gas production increasing?, Accessed 20 March 2009.
17. ^ Alabama State Oil and Gas Board (Nov. 2007):An overview of the Conesauga shale gas play in Alabama, PDF file, downloaded 10 June 2009.
18. ^ "Operators chase gas in three Alabama shale formations," Oil & Gas Jour., 21 Jan. 2008, p.49-50.
19. ^ Nina M. Rach, Triangle Petroleum, Kerogen Resources drilling Arkansas' Fayetteville shale gas, Oil & Gas Journal, 17 Sept. 2007, p.59-62.
20. ^ Mark J. Pawlewicz and Joseph R. hatch, Petroleum Assessment of the Chattanooga Shale/Floyd Shale Total Petroleum System, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama and Mississippi, US Geological Survey, Digital Data Series DDS-69-1, 2007, PDF file.
21. ^ Alabama Geological Survey, An overview of the Floyd Shale/Chattanooga Shale gas play in Alabama, July 2009, PDF file.
22. ^ "Barrett may haveParadox Basin discovery," Rocky Mountain Oil Journal, 14 Nov. 2008, p.1.
23. ^ Louise S. Durham, "Louisiana play a 'company maker'," AAPG Explorer, July 2008, p.18-36.
24. ^ Alan Petzet (2007-08-13). "More operators eye Maverick shale gas, tar sand potential". Oil & Gas Journal (PennWell Corporation) 107: 38–40. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
25. ^ "Maverick fracs unlock gas in Pearsall Shale". Oil & Gas Journal (PennWell Corporation) 107: 32–34. 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
26. ^ Richard E. Peterson (1982) A Geologic Study of the Appalachian Basin, Gas Research Institute, p.40, 45.
27. ^ Unconventional natural gas reservoir in Pennsylvania poised to dramatically increase US Production 2008-01-17
28. ^ Arthur J. Pyron (2008-04-21). "Appalachian basin's Devonian: more than a "new Barnett shale"". Oil & Gas Journal (PennWell Corporation) 106 (15): 38–40. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
29. ^ "Chesapeake announces joint venture agreement", World Oil, December 2008, p.106.
30. ^ Tom Grace, "Officials positive following gas-well tour," Oneonta Daily Star, 7 October 2009.
31. ^ Travis Vulgamore and others, "Hydraulic fracturing diagnostics help optimize stimulations of Woodford Shale horizontals," American Oil and Gas Reporter, Mar. 2008, p.66-79.
32. ^ David Brown, "Big potential boosts Woodford," AAPG Explorer, July 2008, p.12-16.

[edit] External links

* Jackson School of Geosciences (Jan. 2007): Barnett Boom Ignites Hunt for Unconventional Gas Resources
* AAPG Explorer (Mar. 2001): Shale Gas Exciting Again
* Oil and Gas Investor (Jan. 2006): Shale Gas
* Marcellus Shale: horizontal drilling and hydrofracing
* The Haynesville Shale of Louisiana, Texas and Arkansas
* West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey: Geology of the Marcellus Shale PDF file, retrieved 2 January 2009.
* West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey: Enhancement of the Appalachian Basin Devonian shale resource base in the GRI hydrocarbon model PDF file, retrieved 2 January 2009.

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